2) The peeled onion bulb had been chopped and measured homogenized.

2) The peeled onion bulb had been chopped and measured homogenized.

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The TCP data is received by OR from port an and it’s also processed by TCP and TLS protocols. Then a processed data is brought to the TLS buffer. The read event is called to learn and process the info pending into the TLS buffer. This read event will pull the info from TLS buffer in to the input buffer. Then a read event process cells from input buffer one at a time. Each OR has routing table which maintains map from source connection and circuit ID to destination connection and circuit ID.

The transmission direction of this mobile are dependant on the read event. To append the mobile towards the destination circuit the corresponding symmetric key is employed to decrypt / encrypt the payload of this mobile, replace the present circuit ID with destination circuit ID. The mobile are written directly for the destination connection if you have no data waiting in output buffer as well as the write event is included with the function queue. After calling the write event, the info is flushed to TLS buffer of destination. Then write event pull as many cells as you can from circuit to output buffer and add write event to event queue. The next write event carry on flushing data to output buffer and pull cells to output buffer else the cell queued in circuit queue are brought to community via port B by calling write event twice.

Fig. 2Processing the cells at Onion router

The IP packets in Tor community is quite dynamic and based on this the cell – counting based attack implemented.

Step 1: CHOOSING THE TARGET :- The attacker log the information at the exit OR, like the server host internet protocol address and port for a circuit and circuit ID and makes use of CELL – RELAY-DATA to send the info stream.

Step 2: ENCODING THE SIGNAL :- Until the write event is called the CELL – RELAY – DATA is going to be waited into the circuit queue. After the write event is called then a cells are flushed into output buffer. Ergo the attacker can manipulate the range cells flushed towards the output buffer all together. In this manner the attacker can able to embed the secret signal. To encode bit 1, the attacker can flushes three cells from circuit queue and for bit 0, flushes one mobile from circuit queue.

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Step 3: RECORDING PACKETS :- After the signal is embedded into the target traffic it will be transmitted towards the entry OR along with target traffic. The attacker at the entry OR will record the received cells and related information and need certainly to determine whether the received cells are CELL – RELAY – DATA cells.

Step: RECOGNIZING THE EMBEDDED SIGNAL :- The attacker comes into the period of recognizing the embedded signal because of the recorded cells. Because of this used the recovery mechanisms. After the original signal is identified the attacker can link the communication between Alice and Bob.

There are two critical dilemmas pertaining to attack: (1) Encoding signals at exit OR: Two cells are not enough to encode “1” bit. Because if the attacker makes use of two cells to encode bit “1” then it’s going to be easily distorted over community and in addition hard to recover. As soon as the two cells get to the input buffer at the middle OR, the first mobile will be drawn into circuit queue after which if the output buffer is empty, initial mobile is going to be flushed into it. Then a second mobile will be drawn towards the circuit queue. Considering that the output buffer just isn’t empty, the second cell stays into the circuit queue.should english remain the international language for business essay As soon as the write event is named, the initial mobile is going to be brought to the community, although the second mobile written towards the output buffer and wait for the next write event. Consequently, two originally combined cells is going to be divided in to two separate cells at the middle router. Therefore the attacker at the entry OR will observe two separate cells arriving at the circuit queue. This cells is going to be decoded as two “0” bits, leading the attacker to a wrong detection of this signal. To cope with this matter the attacker should choose at the very least three cells for carrying bit “1”.

For transmitting cells, proper delay interval must be selected: If the delay interval on the list of cells is too large, users are not able to tolerate the slow traffic also to send the info will choose another circuit. When this disorder takes place the attack will fail. And if the delay interval is too tiny, then it’s going to raise the possibility that cells may combined at middle OR.

(2) Decoding signals at the entry OR: Distortion of signal: Anyway the blend and division of this cells can happen as a result of unpredictable community delay and congestion. This can cause the embedded signal to be distorted as well as the likelihood of recognizing the embedded signal will undoubtedly be paid down. This is why distortion of this signal, a recovery system can be utilized, that recognize the embedded signal.

The combination and division of mobile are categorized into four types: (1) Two forms of the mobile division for the machine of this signal and (2) Two forms of the mobile combination for different units of signal. To cope with these kind of division and combination forms of the cells the recovery algorithm can be utilized. If the range cells recorded into the circuit queue is smaller than how many the original signal are recovered as either two forms of mobile division for the machine of this signal. Suppose how many cells recorded into the circuit queue is larger than how many cells for carrying the signal; the recovered signal will be either two of this mobile combination for different units of signal. As soon as the signals are recovered in this type with k ≤ 2, can think about that these signals are successfully identified otherwise can not be identified.

In this paper, we provided a cell-counting structured attack against Tor network. This could confirm the anonymous communication among the consumer quickly and accurately and it’s also extremely tough to detect. The attacker at the exit OR manipulates the transmission of cells from the target TCP stream and embeds a secret signal into the mobile counter variation of this TCP stream. Then a attacker at the entry OR recognizes the embedded signal using developed recovery algorithms and links the communication relationship on the list of users. In this attack the detection rate is monotonously increasing function aided by the delay interval and decreasing function of the variance of just one way transmission delay along a circuit. This attack could drastically and quickly degrade the anonymity service that Tor provides. As a result of fundamental design of this Tor community, defending against this attack stays an extremely challenging task that we are going to investigate in future work.

SOURCES

[1] W. Yu, X. Fu, S. Graham, D. Xuan, and W. Zhao, “DSSS-based flow marking strategy for invisible traceback,” in Proc. IEEE S&P,May 2007, pp. 18–32.

[2] N. B. Amir Houmansadr and N. Kiyavash, “RAINBOW: A robust and invisible non-blind watermark for community flows,” in Proc.16thNDSS, Feb. 2009, pp. 1–13.

[3] V. Shmatikov and M.-H. Wang, “Timing analysis in low-latency MIX companies: Attacks and defenses,” in Proc. ESORICS, 2006, pp. 18–31.

[4] V. Fusenig, E. Staab, U. Sorger, and T. Engel, “Slotted packet counting attacks on anonymity protocols,” in Proc. AISC, 2009, pp. 53–60.

[5] X. Wang, S. Chen, and S. Jajodia, “Tracking anonymous peer-to-peer VoIP calls on the internet,” in Proc. 12th ACM CCS, Nov. 2005, pp.81–91.

[6] K. Bauer, D. McCoy, D. Grunwald, T. Kohno, and D. Sicker, “Lowresource routing attacks against anonymous systems,” Univ. Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, Tech. Rep., Aug. 2007.

[7] X. Fu, Z. Ling, J. Luo, W. Yu, W. Jia, and W. Zhao, “One cell is enough to break Tor’s anonymity,” in Proc. Black Hat DC,Feb.2009[Online]. Available: http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/bh-dc-09/Fu/

BlackHat-DC-09-Fu-Break-Tors-Anonymity.pdf

[8] R. Dingledine, N. Mathewson, and P. Syverson, “Tor: Anonymity online,” 2008 [Online]. Available: http://tor.eff.org/index.html.en

[9] R. Dingledine and N. Mathewson, “Tor protocol specification,”2008 [Online]. Available: https://gitweb.torproject.org/torspec.git?a=blob_plain;hb=HEAD;f=tor-spec.txt

[10] J. Reardon, “Improving Tor using a TCP-over-DTLS tunnel,” Master’s thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, Sep. 2008.

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1052 words (4 pages) Essay

7th Aug 2018 Biology Reference this

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The experiment had been in regards to the isolation and characterization of DNA. The DNA had been isolated from the onion. The mass of this isolated DNA had been 15.11 g. The purity of isolated DNA was expected by calculating the ratio based from the absorbance at 260nm and 280nm resulted to 0.671 meaning more protein had been absorbed. Meanwhile in denaturation of DNA, the initial absorbance at 260 nm had been 1.304 more than the absorbance at 260 nm after heating which was 1.095.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) could be the genetic material in humans and all other organisms. DNA isolation is the removal of DNA from the mobile which it ordinarily resides. Isolation could be the removal of DNA from the mobile in which it ordinarily inhabits. (1)

Onions are employed as it contains little number of starch makes it possible for the DNA to be more visible. The filtrate comprises of onions treated with salt, distilled water and detergent collectively called as lysis solution. DNA purification is completed by enzymatic degradation of contaminating proteins with ethanol. A spectrophotometer is employed in determining the concentration and purity of this proteins. (2)

The peeled onion bulb had been chopped and measured homogenized. The sample had been put into a blender added with an ice-cold lysis solution then for 45 seconds at low speed. Meanwhile, the lysis solution used was prepared beforehand by mixing 5.00 ml of liquid detergent, 5.00 ml of 0.500M EDTA, 10.0 ml of 50% Na Cl solution, and 80 ml of distilled water and put into an ice bath. After homogenizing, the sample had been filtered through the cheesecloth as well as the collected filtrate had been put into a 250-ml beaker. A 10.0 ml of 5% pepsin solution had been included with the filtrate and put on an ice bath for ten full minutes with occasional stirring. Ice cold 30.0 ml of 95% ethanol had been pipette towards the side of this beaker containing the sample and stand for ten full minutes on ice bath. Once the DNA precipitates appeared at the screen of this solution, the DNA was already ready for isolation. The spooled DNA was transported straight away to a pre-weighed 100-ml beaker to determine the mass and percent yield of this sample. The isolated DNA was added with 10.0 ml of 95% ethanol then covered with aluminum foil and refrigerated in preparation for the next laboratory procedure.

Little number of DNA sample had been put into a test tube added with 1.00 ml of 20% TCA followed by heating the sample for ten full minutes in water bath with 1.00 ml distilled water. A 2.00 ml of diphenylamine solution was added then heat once more in a water bath for ten full minutes. Along with change had been observed as well as the absorbance of this sample from 400 nm to 700 nm had been scanned to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption. Mean while, little number of the DNA sample had been put into a separate test tube filled up with 5.00 ml distilled water and scanned to learn the absorbance at 260 nm then at 280 nm. After determining the A260/A280 value, the sample had been heated to boil for five full minutes and see the absorbance adain at 260 nm.

The mass of this raw sample gathered from onion is 30.4 g. After homogenization and incorporating of pepsin solution and ethanol, DNA precipitates were became visible and utilized in another beaker. The isolated DNA measures 23 g.

The calculated percentage yield had been quite high. Nonetheless, still some resources of error had been done while conducting the experiment, the sample with DNA precipitates had been disturbed while transferring the DNA. The accumulated DNA precipitates is enough for the next procedure that will be characterization.

Heat denaturation of DNA, causes the double helix structure to unwind and form single stranded DNA. Hence, the bases unstacked and certainly will soak up more light causing a growth after denaturation. But on the basis of the results gathered, the initial absorbance at 260 nm had been 1.304 then had been decreased after heating that has been 1.095. The calculated % upsurge in absorbance had been 8%. This error is perhaps, as a result of heating process. The DNA acquired had been quite greater and had not been totally heated a short while later causing double helix structure never to unwind and form just one stranded DNA.

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The filtrate gathered using this experiment had been manufactured from onions and lysis solution. Onion had been found in this study as a result of low starch content, enabling the DNA to be more visible taking into consideration the onion as one of the most readily useful source of DNA. (4)

The used of lysis solution was to split up the DNA from extra mobile components also to keep carefully the location when the DNA will never be tainted. The NaCL provides NA+ ions that may obstruct the negative fee as of phosphate ends of DNA. Permitting these ends to come nearer so they can precipitate out of a cold solution. The detergent causes the breaking down of the mobile membrane by emulsifying the mobile proteins and lipids. Also, disrupting the polar connections that collectively holds the mobile membrane. The complexes formed with these lipids and proteins causes the precipitate out of solution. Meanwhile, the goal of EDTA is always to chelates metal ions. (5) A Pepsin solution had been useful for purification via enzymatic degradation.

DNA is polar due to its extremely charged phosphate backbone that makes it soluble in water. Hence DNA is insoluble in ice cold ethanol, as a result as soon as the cold ethanol had been added, it causes stable ionic bonds to make and precipitate the DNA.

Heating the sample could be the one in charge of the observed color of DNA with diphenylamine. If the DNA is heated with acid, the 2-deoxyribose is changed into w-hydroxylaevulinic aldehyde, which reacts aided by the mixture diphenylamine. Through this, a blue-colored mixture supposed to create. Inside our sample the color observed was green possibly because of the DNA concentration.

The ratio of absorptions at 260 nm vs 280 nm is generally used to gauge DNA contamination of protein solutions. The nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, absorbs at 260 nm and proteins absorb at 280 nm. On the basis of the results, the rate ratio of absorptions at 260 nm vs 280 nm is 0.671. Since proteins absorb light at 280 nm, the ratio is low meaning there exists a lot of protein absorbed at 280nm.

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2769 words (11 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Psychology Reference this

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Research methodology relates to the many sequential steps adopted by way of a researcher in studying the situation with specific objectives at heart. It is an explanation of this approach to systematic and critical investigation into an identified subject of study. Having an explanation of this elements into the concept of Research Onion (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007) the researcher will describe the steps adopted for this research. Simply speaking we could say that a research methodology could be the description, explanation and justification of varied types of conducting research (Sharavanavel, 2006).

3.2. UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH PROCESS

The thought of research onion (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007) is going to be used to know the research process employed by the researcher.

The main layers in the investigation onion are research philosophy, research approaches, strategy, choices, time horizon, and methods and types of data collection. A conclusion of some these elements of research onion provides the researcher with necessary knowledge to conduct this study (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007).

Figure : 3.1

Source: Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil (2007)

3.2.1. RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY

A study philosophy is just a belief or idea concerning the collection, interpretation, and analysis of data collected. There are many philosophies are explained in Saunder’s research onion. The most significant among them are Positivism, Realism, interpretative, Objectivism, Subjectivism, Pragmatism, Functionalist, Interpretative, Radical humanist, Humanist and structuralist (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007).

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Positivism holds reality as stable. an objective view point are described by this. This philosophy further says that knowledge which are not predicated on positivism is invalid and blurred (Miller Strang & Miller, 2010). Realism is just a philosophy that holds clinical way of development and knowledge . The basic assumption with this philosophy is that that will be happens to be. It really is independent from the belief of this people. There are two forms of realism. Usually the one is direct as well as the other critical realism. From the perspective of a direct realist the entire world is static and having no change. Critical realism holds change as constant (Buchanam & Bryman,2009). In Pragmatism dilemmas are managed directly. This philosophy is keen on results or truth rather than the maxims connected with it. (William James, 2009) This philosophy holds that a concept or theoretical principle should be set on such basis as how it works (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007).

The philosophy adopted by the researcher in this study realism

3.2.2. RESEARCH APPROACHES

The next last layer of this research onion of Saunders (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007) is research approaches.

Figure:3.2

Source: produced by the author (2010)

There are two forms of approaches the Deductive and Inductive (Jonker & Pennink, 2009).

3.2.2.1 Deductive Approach

This is a journey from general to particular. Here the hypothesis as well as the theory are checked first and then go on to results which can be more specific. Here conclusion follows logically from the available facts (Jonker & Pennink, 2009).

3.2.2.2 Inductive Approach

In this process an empirical observation takes the researcher to a result. Here certain observations will reach to more generalizations and forming up of theories. It really is from certain to general. This technique is especially found in the qualitative research (Myers, 2009).

3.2.2.3 Quantitative Approach

Quantitative methods always focus on the numbers as well as its frequencies. It generally does not emphasize regarding the experience and meanings but quantify the data collected. In quantitative approach the info is going to be at the mercy of rigorous and strict analysis (Kothari, 2008).

3.2.2.4. Qualitative Approach

In qualitative Approach the info is collected mainly to spell it out factors in the place of reaching to a statistical inference. It is an unstructured exploratory research method. Here the critical indicators of character, behavior, attitude, opinion etc are subjectively examined. (Myers, 2009) frequently qualitative studies are employed for explanatory purposes (Kothari, 2008).

This research study is just a qualitative research having an inductive approach. Here the researcher can look in to the certain situation of this nurses into the selected hospital and make an effort to go on to the generalization of this findings.

3.2.3. RESEARCH STRATEGY

The next essential layer in the investigation onion is research strategy. There are many methods that researchers adopt for a particular research study. In Saunders’ research onion various research methods are explained. A number of the methods are experiment, survey, action research, research study, grounded theory, ethnography and archival research (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007).

Experimental research is used mainly for the research in physical sciences. It really is used to spot the cause effect relationships and verifying inferences. The key top features of this technique are isolation of factors, replication of experiment, and quantitative measurement of results (Sharavanavel, 2006).

Survey research studies large and tiny populations by picking and studying samples opted for from the populations to see the relative incidence, distribution and interrelations of sociological and emotional variables. This research is used mainly to analyze social and emotional factors (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007).

Research study is just a comprehensive study of a social product. Here the main topic of the analysis is just a person, group, or even a social institution. In this research the context is analysed in more detail. Actual life situations in actual life context is analysed and studied (Sharavanavel, 2006).

Action research is a report connected with a particular project and problem (Coghlan & Brannick, 2009). The aim of this research are finding immediate solution for a problem faced in a society. Therefore we can say that action research is worried with actual life. It studies the ‘what’, ‘how’, and ‘why’ of actual life. Simply speaking it is an make an effort to comprehend the present dilemmas and a help to predict the long run changes (Jonker & Pennink, 2009).

Grounded theory is just a qualitative research study. It really is used mainly into the social sciences. As soon as the old-fashioned clinical method looks to start out the investigation by having a hypothesis this technique is adopts the device of going directly into the info collection first. Most of the data collected are positioned in numerous codes to spot common factors. From the band of these codes then a theory is formed (Charmaz, 2006).

Ethnography is just a unique qualitative research method. In this study the researcher will always be into the research location. The researcher stays aided by the population and acquire a first hand information from the particular culture or group (Murchison, 2009).

The final take into account the investigation strategy is Archival research strategy. It indicates the entire study will be on the basis of the materials of this study kept in certain archives by various other researchers. In this plan a large number of data is available and thus often the data remain uncontrollable. So it will be extremely hard in order to make casual conclusions on the cornerstone of such forms of data (Graham, Towl &. Crihton, 2010).

In this research the researcher has adopted the strategy of a research study to have data from the samples selected. The analysis is going to be conducted on the list of nurses in a single hospital.

3.2.4. CHOICES

The next layer in the investigation onion is preference. These choices are divided in to Mono method, Mixed method and Multi method. In this researcher adopts one technique for his study from various types of research. In Mixed method the researcher adopts generally two practices such as qualitative or quantitative research practices. In Multi method a number of research practices are brought together to analyze or to produce a study (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007).

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In this study of this occupational stress of this nurses the researcher has adopted mixed method and multi approach to choice. Yet only the qualitative research method is used here by the researcher to accomplish the studies regarding the occupational stress on the list of nurses.

3.2.5. TIME HORIZONES

Time Horizons can be indicated as being a time target fixed. An occasion restriction is generally fixed for the completion of a task or activity. It identifies a planning or even a preparation. Here the time frame for the completion of a research study is explained. There are two forms of time horizons. The first one is Cross Sectional therefore the second is Longitudinal. In Cross sectional study the full time is prefixed for the completion a study. In longitudinal no time is restriction for the info collection, data analysis, as well as other completion of this research. Behavioral studies frequently conducted in longitudinal practices since it needs a number of years for observation (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2009).

In this study of this occupational stress of this nurses the full time horizon was cross sectional method which was adopted by the researcher. The full time horizon for conducting the research had been prefixed and planned. a limited time frame had been allotted towards the researcher to conduct the info collection for the samples selected.

The absolute most essential elements in a research study are data collection and data analysis. a systematically collected data as well as its proper analysis will answer a research question. This is a strategy by having a procedure (Bryman & Bell, 2007). The reliability and legitimacy of a research is directly placed on the measurement of data (Wood & Ross-Kerr, 2010). There are two forms of data collected for a systematic analysis for any research. They have been Primary Data and Secondary Data (Kumar, 2008).

Primary Data refers compared to that information which can be created first time or that are created to generally meet the precise demands of this investigation at hand. Primary data is collected directly from the respondents or the subjects of experiment (Yin, 2010). Here there exists a proper control over the info gathered (Bhattacharyya, 2006). The major disadvantage here is that it really is more hours consuming. Some times the primary data collection becomes more difficult while the suitable individuals or samples are not at hand (Reason & Bradbury, 2006).

There are many resources of primary data. They have been, Questionnaire, Interview Schedules and interviews, Focus groups, Case Studies, Experiments, Observations, Surveys and talks (Collrel & McKenzie, 2010).

The researcher, in this study, has collected the principal way to obtain data by utilizing interview schedule, and structured questionnaire. The Questionnaire enlists questions, which translate the research objectives into certain questions. The question also needs to encourage the respondent so your vital information is obtained. In this study the researcher has employed both factual in addition to opinion and attitude questions.

3.2.6.2. Secondary Data

Secondary data is maybe not collected directly from the respondents. Here the info was collected by others (Bhattacharyya, 2006). It could be number of the report on the primary data. The number of secondary data is low priced with regards to time and economy. For a comparison of two forms of statistics and reaching to an inference secondary data can be very effective. Yet the secondary data can be outdated and can be subjective since it has recently evolved into the brain of some other person. Secondary data are uncontrollable and vast rendering it to be inappropriate for a particular purpose (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007).

There are many resources of secondary data. Books, Journals, News Papers, Reports and publications, Articles in mags and sites, government statistics, company or organization statistics (Bryman & Bell, 2007).

In this study to get the secondary data the researcher is going to be making use of various materials related to the main topics the investigation. A number of books, health related articles, health journals, webpages, hospital statistics and news papers is going to be useful for the number of secondary data.

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