The Ministry of Education was established, which was in charge of secular educational institutions.

The Ministry of Education was established, which was in charge of secular educational institutions.

Their arms are tied and their necks are tied with a single rope.

Darius was prudent and perhaps thought that without the inscription the meaning of the proud picture would not be clear to the descendants. And he ordered the rest of the wall to be filled with inscriptions in three languages: in Old Persian – the language of the king and the court, in Babylonian – the language of the state, and in Elamite.

As soon as the sculptors finished their work, the calligraphers embossed a long inscription, and at this time Darius returned from a military campaign, defeating the leader of the Saxon tribe Tigrahaud. This was followed by a new order: to add to the defeated kings and the figure of the Saxon leader.

The workers began to fuss, because there was no place to put the Saxon king. All the free space was filled with inscriptions. We had to cut down the Elamite text, and in its place the last of the kings to put a new leader. The Elamite text was partially restored in the second place.

The king inspected the monument and awarded those responsible for the work and sculptors. The inscription contained words forbidding damage to the monument for fear of death.

But in order to damage the monument, it had to be reached first, and it was superhuman. It was impossible to read the inscription below. And it was not even possible to learn that the king of kings – Darius does not allow to damage it.

But the soldier and athlete Rawlinson were not intimidated by the 105 meters that separated the inscription from the foot of the mountain. In 1837, he, a major in the British army, descended with blocks from this mountain and, hanging at a dizzying height, copied the ancient Persian version of the text. After the Babylonian he dared to return only a few years later – this required « giant ladders, sea rope and » cats « and they were very difficult to bring here » And yet in 1846 he presented the London Royal Asian Union not only the first exact copy of the famous inscription, but also its full translation.

The study of the Behistun « manuscript » continued for more than a hundred years. We must pay tribute to King Darius – he gave scientists a difficult task. But they also treated his request with great respect: there was no attempt to damage the proud inscription informing us of the victories of the ancient king …

literature

History of the ancient world. Edited by LM Gluskina, IS Sventsitskaya. – M. 1986.D. G. Raeder, EA Cherkasova. History of the Ancient World. In two parts. Part 1: Primitive Society and the Ancient East. – M. 1985. History of the Ancient East. Edited by VI Kuzishchin. – M. 1979. O. P. Kryzhanivsky. History of the Ancient East. – K., 2002. Lukonin VG Ancient and early medieval Iran. Essays on the history of culture. – M., 1987. History of Iran. – M., 1977. Kosidovsky Z. When the sun was a god. – M., 1967. Kerram KV Gods, tombs, scientists. – SPb: Amphora / Eureka, 2001.

11/10/2012

« Tanzimat » as a way of transformation of social and state development in the Ottoman Empire. Abstract

The crisis of the empire, which became more and more obvious from the XVIII century, reached its apogee at the beginning of the XIX century.

Reforms of Selim III and Mahmud II at the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries. were a desperate attempt to put an end to the remnants of the medieval military system. They helped to achieve something, but the further course of events and, in particular, the military successes of Muhammad Ali of Egypt, who put Porto (this term in Europe meant the sultan’s government and the Ottoman Empire as a whole) brought the results of the second round of reforms to almost nothing.

The empire was saved from complete destruction only as a result of the intervention of unwilling states: the question of the empire’s vast inheritance of possessions in Europe inevitably arose, the painful question of the straits claimed by Russia, which categorically did not suit other countries, especially Britain. Already in the summer of 1839 the states officially announced that they were taking Porto under their « collective care » and the London Conference, ultimately demanding that Muhammad Ali renounce the fruits of his victories, in 1840 legalized this collective guardianship, with the new Sultan Abdul Majid (1839-1861) had no choice but to accept it.

Acute domestic political and economic crisis, military defeat, pressure from states seeking new concessions and benefits – all this posed to the new sultan and his advisers, the most famous of whom was Rashid Pasha, difficult tasks that could be solved only with the next round of reforms. Radical transformations were needed, and the rulers of the empire were forced to resort to them.

The next round of reforms (1839-1870) was called Tanzimat (« reform » « transformation »). Published in November 1839, the Gulhaney Hutt-i-Sheriff testified that the new sultan aimed to guarantee the security of their lives, honor, and property, abolish the ransom system and regulate taxation, and change the order of conscription. To implement this program in the early 40’s, a number of reforms were carried out in the field of administration (creation of mejlis, ie advisory bodies with non-Muslims under the governors of provinces and sanjaks), court (drafting criminal and commercial codes) , education (creation of secular schools), as well as a number of measures taken to improve land relations and economic development.

The reforms provoked fierce resistance in the country, especially from the clergy, zealous adherents of Islam. In the transformation of the traditional system of relations, they saw another step towards the Europeanization of the country and, accordingly, the weakening of their influence, which could not but be regarded by them as the collapse of the foundations. One of the most vulnerable points of Tanzimat’s entire program was the status of numerous non-Turkish subjects of the empire and Muslims in general: the attempt to equate the rights of non-Muslims with Muslims met with the greatest resistance in the country.

As a result, the order of conscription was not changed (the army was still staffed with Muslims). Moreover, the problem of the status of Christians caused a conflict with Russia, which claimed patronage against them and the « holy places » in Palestine, which eventually led to the Crimean War of 1853-1856. As a result of the war, Turkey was victorious, but this victory was a Pyrrhic one for her, because it exhausted the treasury and marked the beginning of the country dramatically increasing foreign debt. The main result of the war and the related onslaught of states was the continuation of tanzimat reforms.

The reforms of the 1950’s and 1960’s took another step towards establishing equality for all subjects of the empire: the official status of non-Muslim millet communities (Greek, Armenian, Jewish, etc.) was established, and their representatives were admitted to the civil service. them in the army remained unresolved). An important law on land was adopted, guild regulations in cities were abolished, and the system of tax redemptions was streamlined. The judiciary has been separated from the administrative, and the Sharia courts have been somewhat suppressed. The Ministry of Education was established, which was in charge of secular educational institutions. Finally, the reforms provided many rights and benefits to foreign capital, especially the right to own real estate.

The implementation of all these reforms was associated with the activities of the most prominent reformers of the second half of the XIX century. Ali Pasha and Fuad Pasha, advisers to Abdul Majid and his successor Abdul Aziz I (1861-1876), who led the government of the empire. Guided by the doctrine of Ottomanism (all subjects of the empire – the Ottomans), they sought to maintain the dominant position of the Turks in the country with the formal equality of all peoples inhabiting the empire. Realizing the need for further Europeanization of the country, they made appropriate concessions to foreign capital, although they were clearly aware of how unpopular this policy was and what powerful forces in the empire opposed it.

As for concessions buy essay now compare and contrast, they were reduced to tariff benefits (8% – a single customs tax on foreign goods), to confirm the capitulation regime, to create a leader in financial affairs of the empire of the Anglo-French Ottoman Bank (1856), which soon became a state bank, as well as to large investments in industrial, railway construction, extraction and processing of agricultural and other raw materials. It should be noted that at the same time the country’s external debt grew, because the state budget deficit since the Crimean War was repaid by loans. The debt by 1876 reached a huge amount of 6 billion francs. The price for this was the increasing provision of foreign capital with opportunities to penetrate the economy of the empire.

The result was a gradual change in the economy of the country, which was involved in the world market. The appearance of the economy changed both in the field of traditional crafts and trade, and in the field of agriculture. The emerging industry occupied more and more prominent positions in the economy, and a developed infrastructure was created for its needs.

All these generally positive changes for the country, including the fact that they resulted in the economic invasion of the country by foreign capital, were accompanied by an increase in national self-awareness, especially among educated intellectuals. In 1865, a secret society of « new Ottomans » emerged, which aimed to create a regime of constitutional monarchy in the country. In the early 1970s, the newspaper Ibret (Teachings) began to be published in Istanbul, reflecting their ideas. And although the newspaper was soon closed, the position of supporters of the constitution, led by a prominent dignitary of the Midhat Pasha empire, by the mid-70’s significantly strengthened. Mass demonstrations in May 1876 signaled the start of decisive action: Sultan Abdul-Aziz was deprived of power, and the new Sultan Abdul-Hamid II agreed to the constitution, which was officially adopted in December 1876.

The constitution proclaimed the fundamental rights and freedoms of the citizens of the empire, created a bicameral parliament and somewhat limited the prerogatives of the sultan. But the elected parliament was obedient to the will of the monarch, and the Grand Vizier Midhat Pasha was expelled from the country in February 1877. The Sultan, despite all the constitutional limitations of his power, clearly became the master of the situation.

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